Heavy consumption of the essential amino acid lysine (as indicated in the treatment of cold sores) has allegedly shown false positives in some and was cited by American shotputter C. J. Hunter as the reason for his positive test, though in 2004 he admitted to a federal grand jury that he had injected nandrolone.  A possible cause of incorrect urine test results is the presence of metabolites from other AAS, though modern urinalysis can usually determine the exact AAS used by analyzing the ratio of the two remaining nandrolone metabolites. As a result of the numerous overturned verdicts, the testing procedure was reviewed by UK Sport . On October 5, 2007, three-time Olympic gold medalist for track and field Marion Jones admitted to use of the drug, and was sentenced to six months in jail for lying to a federal grand jury in 2000. 
Other significant adverse effects of testosterone supplementation include acceleration of pre-existing prostate cancer growth in individuals who have undergone androgen deprivation; increased hematocrit , which can require venipuncture in order to treat; and, exacerbation of sleep apnea .  Adverse effects may also include minor side-effects such as acne and oily skin, as well as, significant hair loss and/or thinning of the hair, which may be prevented with 5-alpha reductase inhibitors ordinarily used for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia , such as finasteride .  Exogenous testosterone may also cause suppression of spermatogenesis , leading to, in some cases, infertility.  It is recommended that physicians screen for prostate cancer with a digital rectal exam and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level before starting therapy, and monitor PSA and hematocrit levels closely during therapy. 
The fact is that anabolic steroids do present various health risks – they are not without their faults and potential risks, as with anything. However, the context under which they are utilized presents a vast difference in how much of a risk is being taken. Responsible and judicious anabolic steroid use among healthy adult males is a significantly different situation in comparison to anabolic steroid use among children, teenagers, and females. Within the context of healthy adult male anabolic steroid use, the associated and proposed risks plummet by a massive degree, and from what we already know from studies referenced above, the average anabolic steroid user is in fact not teenagers and nor are they athletes, but are healthy adult males in the median age range of 25 – 35 years of age. Other more recent studies have also supported this fact among steroids statistics, where a 2006 study that surveyed 500 anabolic steroid users found that almost 80% of these users were not competitive athletes or bodybuilders but instead average adult physically active males  . Furthermore, the majority of anabolic steroid users are short-term users that do not engage in lifetime use (either in cycles or constant use), and that the rate of actual lifetime use among anabolic steroid users was found to be % for males, and % for females5. What this means is that only % and % of all male and female anabolic steroid users respectively will engage in lifetime use (mostly via subsequent cycles), while the rest will only utilize anabolic steroids once or a handful of times during their life.