Cystoscopy has similar indications in animals, including visualisation and biopsy of mucosa, retrieval or destruction of urinary bladder stones and diagnosis of ectopic ureters.    In turtle and tortoises, cystoscopy has additional values as it permits the visualisation of internal organs due to the thin urinary bladder wall.  In young individuals in which sex determination would not be feasible by visualisation of external morphologic features, this technique permits noninvasive visualisation of gonads, and therefore sex determination. 
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