Propionate krebs cycle

The ATP yield for every oxidation cycle is theoretically a maximum yield of 17, as NADH produces 3 ATP, FADH 2 produces 2 and a full rotation of the citric acid cycle produces 12. [ citation needed ] In practice it's closer to 14 ATP for a full oxidation cycle as in practice the theoretical yield isn't attained - it's generally closer to ATP per NADH molecule produced, for each FADH 2 Molecule produced and this equates to 10 per cycle of the TCA [ citation needed ] (according to the P/O ratio ), broken down as follows:

The organisms in the rumen that are largely responsible for the fermentation of cellulose ( Ruminococcus albus, Ruminococcus flavefaciens and Fibrobacter succinogenes (previously called Bacteroides succinogenes ) appear to have minimal requirements for amino acids and grow on ammonia (see Leng, 1991 for discussion). Conversely, organisms important in starch hydrolysis ( Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens, Bacteroides ruminicola, Selenomonas ruminantium, Streptococcus bovis and Ruminobacter (Bacteroides) amylophilus (Hobson et al. 1988) readily incorporate amino acid N and in many cases peptides (see Leng, 1991).

It should also be underlined that, due to orientation of the active site , the cell separates this enzymatic activity from the cytosol, thus avoiding that glycolysis, that occurs in the cytosol, is aborted by enzyme action on glucose 6-phosphate.
The ΔG°’ of the reaction is - kJ/mol (- kcal/mol), therefore it is an irreversible reaction. If instead the reaction were that catalyzed by hexokinase/glucokinase in reverse, it would require the transfer of a phosphate group from glucose 6-phosphate to ADP. Such a reaction would have a ΔG equal to + kJ/mol (+8 kcal/mol), and then strongly endergonic. Similar considerations can be made for the reaction catalyzed by FBPase-1 .
Glucose and P i group seem to be transported into the cytosol via different transporters, referred to as T2 and T3, the last one an anion transporter.
Finally, glucose leaves the hepatocyte via the membrane transporter GLUT2, enters the bloodstream and is transported to tissues that require it. Conversely, under physiological conditions, as previously said, glucose produced by the kidney is mainly used by the medulla of the kidney itself.

The citric acid cycle is the central metabolic hub of the cell. It is the final common pathway for the oxidation of fuel molecule such as amino acids, fatty acids, and carbohydrates. It is the gateway to the aerobic metabolism of any molecule that can be transformed into an acetyl group or dicarboxylic acid. The citric acid cycle (Krebs cycle, tricarboxylic acid cycle) includes a series of oxidation-reduction reactions in mitochondria that result in the oxidation of an acetyl group to two molecules of carbon dioxide and reduce the coenzymes that are reoxidized through the electron transport chain, linked to the formation of ATP.

Propionate krebs cycle

propionate krebs cycle

The citric acid cycle is the central metabolic hub of the cell. It is the final common pathway for the oxidation of fuel molecule such as amino acids, fatty acids, and carbohydrates. It is the gateway to the aerobic metabolism of any molecule that can be transformed into an acetyl group or dicarboxylic acid. The citric acid cycle (Krebs cycle, tricarboxylic acid cycle) includes a series of oxidation-reduction reactions in mitochondria that result in the oxidation of an acetyl group to two molecules of carbon dioxide and reduce the coenzymes that are reoxidized through the electron transport chain, linked to the formation of ATP.

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